Go to chapter 5/617 on the multiple choice questions I send you Chapter 3: Business Style: Word Choice, Conciseness, and Tone l. Word choice Plain style: style of writing that places value on simplicity, directness and clarity. -use common everyday words except for necessary technical terms. use reasonable sentence lengths -use active-voice verbs and phrasal verbs ( active-voice verbs show who or what performs an action/ phrasal verbs are simple and informal, continuing verbs =>work out instead of devise) -use personal pronouns -use unambiguous language place the subject as close as possible to the verb Word choice step 1: use familiar words -Avoid words that finish in -ize or -ization. use words derived from French only times to times -Avoid foreign words or phrases -use only Job-related Jargon – avoid buzzwords such as paradigm shift Word choice step 2: use language that is fresh and current -replace clich?©’s -avoid outdated business expressions -eliminate slang (coined words or existing words that are informal) -avoid instant messaging abbreviations and emoticons Word choice step 3: keep language specific, precise, and functional -provide specific etails that help readers act on information and requests -quantify facts and avoid vague qualitative statements like “they receive some complaints about it sometimes ago’ -avoid ambiguous and non-idiomatic expressions (metaphors) -use comparisons and analogies to clarify.
Word choice step 4: practise factual and ethical communication -be reasoned and moderate in your Judgements -consider the impact your communication has on others as well as yourself -consult qualified colleagues – avoid libellous language (false, derogatory language) -be timely and accurate in your communication Avoid untrue, deceptive or misleading statements -Know what you can and cannot disclose to certain parties -distinguish between facts and opinions -don’t claim authorship of documents you have not written II. Achieving conciseness -eliminate long lead-ins -be careful when converting nouns into verbs -Eliminate redundancies -eliminate or revise empty words and phrases -use strong, precise, accurate verbs as a modifier) -eliminate fillers (there are… -shorten multiple that/which/who clauses -combine shorter sentences, reduce clauses and phrases Ill. Tone Tune in to words connotations The right words may not Just be the one with the more accurate denotations, but the ones with the most appropriate connotations. Keep your style conversational Select the right level of formality: personal and impersonal style Personal style: short sentences, personal pronouns, first names, active voice Impersonal style: a mix of sentences lengths, including long sentences, no personal pronouns, no first names, legitimate use of passive voice. Be positive Stress reader benefits and relevance -present meaningful content=.
No unnecessary messages -Develop a positive you-attitude, reader focused unless it is a negative message – emphasize benefits to readers Be polite Use inclusive language -don’t use discriminatory comments -use only gender-neutral Job titles and salutations -use masculine pronouns reasonably Write with confidence -use definite, forward-looking language -don’t make unnecessary apologies -use strong, assertive phrasing rather than “weasel words” -be knowledgeable and informative -guard against overconfidence Chapter 4: Business Style: Sentences and Paragraphs Follow standard sentence structure Aim for a natural mix of sentence style and length matched to your purpose Emphasize important facts and ideas with visual devices, punctuation marks and the order of words and phrases Use parallelism and other techniques to write with consistency Stay in the active voice as much as possible Eliminate grammar errors and awkward constructions Rely on coherence-building techniques that show relationships between ideas Limit paragraph length Develop proofreading strategies for different kinds of messages and documents.